[:en]By Rhian Ellis, Academic Developer, SALT.

Active Learning in Higher Education 


Why teach like this when learning is like this?
Education Rickshaw 2019 (1)

This blog is about active learning and its growing importance in Higher Education.

It’s also a great opportunity to offer my insight from the SALT ‘7Cs’ January workshop led by Dr. Patricia Xavier from Swansea University’s College of Engineering, ‘Dynamism, conversation and challenge: using active learning and assessment to engage passive learners’.

What is active learning?

‘‘Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting in classes listening to teachers, memorizing pre-packaged assignments and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences, and apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves’’ (Chickering & Gamson 1987).

‘Uses active learning techniques’ is one among the ‘Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education’ originally published in 1987 by Chickering and Gamson.

Here are all seven in the original order presented…

  1. Encourages contact between students and faculty
  2. Develops reciprocity and cooperation among students
  3. Uses active learning techniques
  4. Gives prompt feedback
  5. Emphasises time on task
  6. Communicates high expectations
  7. Respects diverse talents and ways of doing things

Excellent learning and teaching often combines several or all of the principles in a certain approach.

Some good examples from Swansea University can be found on this link to the ‘Seven Characteristics of a Good University Teacher’ seminar and workshop programme, inspired by a combination of  Chickering and Gamson’s work and Swansea University qualitative module feedback, where you can find videos and blogs on past events and reservation links to upcoming ones.

Chickering and Gamson’s examples of active learning techniques include:-

  • Structured exercises
  • Challenging discussions
  • Team projects
  • Peer critiques
  • Outside the classroom e.g. internships
  • Independent study
  • Cooperative job programmes
  • Students co-designing and co-teaching

All of the above remain crucial areas of academic development in HE today, along with newer concepts such as ‘the flipped classroom’ and ‘blended learning’, which often incorporate learning technologies not imagined in 1989.

Active Spaces and Active Minds

In the HE context, the term ‘active learning’ is now synonymous with the spaces and environments within which active learning takes place, as traditional lecture theatres with large cohorts of students pose challenges in being able to adopt a more active approach. Solutions are sought in using space in innovative ways conducive to active learning, and technology has also enhanced active learning opportunities for larger groups, e.g. A019 at The Bay Campus at Swansea University.

However, it’s important to remember that the concept of active learning is an umbrella term for learning through all sorts of meaningful activities. It’s about the cognitive processes experienced by the learner, rather than the learning environments they are in, per se. By thinking creatively, we can create opportunities for active learning in many areas of ‘traditional’ teaching and learning (such as in the example below).

Active learning techniques are also favoured by employers, offering ‘more opportunity to embed skill enhancement’ such as problem solving, teamwork, communication and enthusiasm…’ (Power 2012).

January’s 7Cs Workshop:

‘Dynamism, conversation and challenge: using active learning and assessment to engage passive learners’

In this session held at A019 The Bay Campus, Dr Patricia Xavier from Swansea University’s College of Engineering shared and reflected upon her experience of introducing active learning and assessment techniques to groups of over 160 students. The session included the chance to participate in one of her active learning exercises.

Why Change?

Patricia began the session by asking us to think about terms such as ‘active’, ‘problem-based’ and ‘experience-based’ learning….what do these pedagogies have in common? They involve students being more ACTIVE rather than in their learning. Patricia quoted Dr Ben Brabon, Senior Advisor at Advance HE, who recently argued that people learn best

‘through doing, asking questions and self-constructing their knowledge. What we discover we are more likely to retain’ (Dr Ben Brabon, 2019)

Patricia explained that her motivation for introducing more active techniques to a construction management module was motivated by many factors – awareness of the pedagogical evidence, learning from peers at SALT conferences, but also first- hand experience of deteriorating attendance and absence of questions asked by and of students in large lectures. Speaking to students revealed an acceptance of the idea that a minimal amount of learning taking place in large lectures, of not retaining much knowledge from them, but simply seeing them as places to be signposted to learn in their own time.

What changed?

With careful planning, Patricia revised her approach to include:-

  • timetabled group learning sessions
  • examination of case studies and project data
  • exploration of interactive tasks
  • peer interaction and instruction
  • structured ‘paired’ weeks
  • formative assessed tasks with feedback, to precede summative ones

Tasks were designed to meet learning outcomes through students:-

  • spending more time together
  • discovering things for themselves
  • problem-solving, and
  • engaging in discussion

Patricia wanted to avoid micro-managing tasks but was available throughout the sessions to answer questions and facilitate the group work, at times having some assistance from a very small number of Demonstrators.

166 students were assigned to four-hour sessions of the above nature. There was an element of self-selection into groups of 3, then groups were groups paired, with some consideration of ability level. It’s important to stress at this stage that her formative assessment sessions were not compulsory, yet students attended.

Getting on with it!

We were asked to ‘get active’.  Putting ourselves in the role of students in groups of four, we attempted one of the activities she had actually used in one of her sessions. I thought this was an interesting and revealing workshop strategy, as we found ourselves experiencing similar emotions to that of Patricia’s students i.e. initial confusion giving way to satisfaction and a sense of achievement as the task progressed. We were asked to capture these emotions on post-it notes – very useful to draw on in risk management.

The ‘7C’s’ session was held in room A019, Engineering Central, which is one of Swansea University’s new bespoke active learning spaces, but Patricia explained that she had introduced her active methods in general teaching rooms big enough to accommodate her students, without any special equipment or software.

Was it worth the change?

Patricia invited feedback from her students, which initially included some opposition – they certainly felt they were being challenged and doing something different to the norm. However, Patricia found that the feedback and reassurance she offered back, combined with the benefits of the approach soon speaking for itself in terms of students’ learning, feedback quickly became very positive, quoting the fun, high level of engagement and staff-student interaction among the things they liked best. Feedback started to include the comment ‘thank-you’.

Were there lessons learned?

Yes. Patricia identified several, which should feature in the risk management of anyone thinking of adopting a similar approach.

  • Managing anxiety levels
  • Facilitation of large groups
  • Mitigation of language difficulties

These could all be addressed in the pre-session information given to prepare students e.g. glossaries, management of expectations, clear explanation of the advantages of active learning.

At the end of the session, I left thinking that Patricia’s new approach echoes many of the ‘Seven Principles of Good Undergraduate Practice’, and was both inspirational and practically helpful to colleagues thinking to make changes in their own teaching and learning.

If you have an example of active learning, especially in the context of a large group/cohort, we would love to hear about it at SALT. Please feel free to comment on the blog or message Rhian at SALT on r.e.ellis@swansea.ac.uk, tweet @rhianellis #susaltcpd.

Additional Resources

(1) Image provided by Stephanie Groshell and Zach Groshell, Education Rickshaw.com:


Extra Reading:

A.W.Chickering  and Z.F. Gamson “Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education” (PDF). AAHE Bulletin. 3.

Research findings on the seven principles. In A.W. Chickering & Z.F. Gamson (Eds.) Applying the seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education (pp. 13-25). New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 47. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/tl.v1991:47/issuetoc

Power, Jess (2012) Promoting Employability Skills through Active Learning. In: The Second Employability, Enterprise, & Citizenship in Higher Education Conference, Tuesday 27th March 2012, Manchester, UK.





Dulliau Dysgu Gweithredol ym maes Addysg Uwch


Why teach like this when learning is like this?
Education Rickshaw

Mae’r blog hwn yn trafod DYSGU GWEITHREDOL a’i bwysigrwydd cynyddol ym maes Addysg Uwch.Mae hefyd yn gyfle gwych i mi gynnig cipolwg i chi ar weithdy ‘7C’ adlewyrchol iawn Academi Dysgu ac Addysgu Abertawe dan arweiniad Dr  Patricia Xavier o Goleg Peirianneg Prifysgol Abertawe, a’r teitl difyr iawn oedd:‘Dynamism, conversation and challenge: using active learning and assessment to engage passive learners’.


Beth yw dysgu gweithgar?

‘‘Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting in classes listening to teachers, memorizing pre-packaged assignments and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences, and apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves’’ (Chickering & Gamson 1987).

Mae’r ‘defnydd o ddulliau dysgu gweithredol’ yn un o’r ‘Saith Egwyddor Arfer Da mewn Addysg Israddedig’ a gyhoeddwyd yn wreiddiol ym 1987 gan Chickering a Gamson.

Dyma bob un o’r saith yn y drefn wreiddiol a gyflwynwyd…

  1. Yn annog cyswllt rhwng myfyrwyr â chyfadrannau
  2. Yn datblygu dwyochredd a chydweithrediad ymhlith myfyrwyr
  3. Yn defnyddio dulliau dysgu gweithredol
  4. Yn rhoi adborth prydlon
  5. Yn pwysleisio amser ar dasg
  6. Yn cyfleu disgwyliadau uchel
  7. Yn parchu amrywiaeth o ddoniau a ffyrdd o wneud pethau.

Mae dysgu ac addysgu ardderchog yn aml yn cyfuno pob un o’r saith egwyddor mewn dull penodol – gellir disgrifio llawer o’r rhain yn ‘weithredol.’ Gellir dod o hyd i enghreifftiau da o Brifysgol Abertawe ar y ddolen hon i’r rhaglen o seminarau a gweithdai Saith Nodwedd sy’n gwneud Athro Da yn y Brifysgol,’ lle gallwch weld fideos a blogiau ar ddigwyddiadau blaenorol yn ogystal â dolenni i gofrestru ar gyfer rhai yn y dyfodol.

Mae eu henghreifftiau nhw o ddulliau dysgu gweithredol yn cynnwys:-

  • Ymarferion strwythuredig
  • Trafodaethau heriol
  • Prosiectau tîm
  • Beirniadaethau gan gymheiriaid
  • Y tu hwnt i’r ystafell ddosbarth e.e. interniaethau
  • Astudio annibynnol
  • Rhaglenni gwaith cydweithredol
  • Myfyrwyr yn dylunio ac yn addysgu ar y cyd

Mae pob un o’r uchod yn parhau’n feysydd hanfodol o ran datblygiad academaidd ym maes Addysg Uwch heddiw, yn ogystal â chysyniadau mwy newydd megis ‘yr ystafell ddosbarth wrthdro a dysgu cyfunol sy’n aml yn cynnwys technolegau dysgu na feddyliwyd amdanynt ym 1989.

Mannau Gweithredol a Meddyliau Gweithredol

Yng nghyd-destun addysg uwch, mae’r term ‘dysgu gweithredol’ bellach yn gyfystyr â’r mannau a’r amgylcheddau y cynhelir dysgu gweithredol ynddynt, oherwydd bod heriau’n gysylltiedig â darlithfeydd traddodiadol gyda charfannau mawr o fyfyrwyr o ran y gallu i fabwysiadu dull mwy gweithredol ynddynt. Gellir ceisio atebion o ran defnyddio mannau mewn ffyrdd arloesol sy’n addas ar gyfer dysgu gweithredol, ac mae technoleg hefyd wedi gwella’r cyfleoedd dysgu gweithredol ar gyfer grwpiau mwy e.e. A019 ar Gampws y Bae ym Mhrifysgol Abertawe.

Fodd bynnag, mae’n bwysig cofio mae term ambarél yw dysgu gweithredol ar gyfer dysgu drwy bob math o weithgareddau ystyrlon. Mae’n ymwneud â’r prosesau gwybyddol y mae’r dysgwr yn eu profi yn hytrach na’r amgylcheddau dysgu y maen nhw ynddynt fel y cyfryw. Trwy feddwl yn greadigol, gallwn greu cyfleoedd ar gyfer dysgu gweithredol mewn sawl maes o ‘ddysgu ac addysgu traddodiadol.’Mae cyflogwyr hefyd yn cefnogi dulliau dysgu gweithredol am eu bod yn cynnig ‘mwy o gyfleoedd i ymgorffori’r broses o wella sgiliau ynddynt, megis datrys problemau, gweithio mewn tîm, cyfathrebu a brwdfrydedd…’ (Power 2012).

Gweithdy 7C Ionawr

Dynamism, conversation and challenge: using active learning and assessment to engage passive learners’

Yn y sesiwn hon yn A019 ar Gampws y Bae, bu Dr Patricia Xavier yn rhannu ac yn myfyrio ynghylch ei phrofiadau o gyflwyno dulliau dysgu ac asesu gweithredol i grwpiau o dros 160 o fyfyrwyr, ac roedd y gweithdy’n cynnwys y cyfle i gymryd rhan mewn un o’i hymarferion dysgu gweithredol.

Pam newid?

Dechreuodd Patricia y sesiwn drwy ofyn i ni feddwl am dermau megis dysgu ‘gweithredol,’ ‘seiliedig ar broblem’ a ‘seiliedig ar brofiad’…beth sy’n debyg rhwng y dulliau addysgu hyn?Maen nhw’n golygu bod myfyrwyr yn fwy GWEITHREDOL yn hytrach na GODDEFOL yn eu dysgu.Dyfynnodd Patricia Dr Ben Branon, Uwch-ymgynghorydd yn Advance HE, a fu’n dadlau’n ddiweddar bod pobl yn dysgu’n well ‘drwy wneud, gofyn cwestiynau ac adeiladu eu gwybodaeth eu hunain. Rydym yn fwy tebygol o ddal gafael ar yr hyn rydym ni’n ei ddarganfod.’

Esboniodd Patricia fod nifer o ffactorau wedi ei chymell i gyflwyno mwy o ddulliau gweithredol i fodiwl rheoli adeiladu – ymwybyddiaeth o’r dystiolaeth addysgu, dysgu gan gymheiriaid mewn cynadleddau Academaidd Dysgu ac Addysgu Abertawe, yn ogystal â phrofiad ymarferol o bresenoldeb sy’n gwaethygu, a diffyg cwestiynau a ofynnir gan fyfyrwyr mewn darlithoedd mawr.Wrth siarad â myfyrwyr,  derbyniodd y syniad mai prin yw’r dysgu sy’n digwydd mewn darlithoedd mawr, nid yw’r myfyrwyr yn dal gafael ar lawer o wybodaeth. Yn syml, maen nhw’n eu gweld fel mannau i’w cyfeirio at ddysgu yn eu hamser eu hunain.

Beth sydd wedi newid?

Felly, er iddi boeni, diwygiodd Patricia ei dull i gynnwys y canlynol:

  • sesiynau dysgu grŵp a amserlennwyd
  • astudio astudiaethau achos a data prosiectau
  • archwilio tasgau rhyngweithiol
  • rhyngweithio a chael cyfarwyddiadau gan gymheiriaid
  • wythnosau ‘paru’ strwythuredig
  • tasgau a aseswyd yn ffurfiannol gydag adborth cyn rhai crynodol

Dyluniwyd tasgau’n ofalus i ddiwallu deilliannau dysgu, drwy sicrhau bod y myfyrwyr yn:-

  • treulio mwy o amser gyda’i gilydd
  • darganfod pethau drostynt eu hunain
  • datrys problemau, a
  • chymryd rhan mewn trafodaethau.

Roedd Patricia am osgoi micro-reoli tasgau, ond roedd hi ar gael drwy gydol y sesiynau i ateb cwestiynau a hwyluso gwaith grŵp. Roedd hi’n cael cefnogaeth gan nifer fach iawn o ddangoswyr ar adegau.

Cafodd 166 o fyfyrwyr eu neilltuo i sesiynau pedair awr tebyg i’r uchod. Roedd elfen o hunan ddewis i grwpiau o 3, yna roedd grwpiau’n cael eu paru. Rhoddwyd rhywfaint o ystyriaeth i lefelau gallu. Mae’n bwysig pwysleisio ar yr adeg hon nad oedd eu sesiynau asesu ffurfiannol yn orfodol ond eto, roedd myfyrwyr yn mynd iddynt.

Mynd ati!

Gofynnwyd i ni ‘fod yn weithredol.’Drwy chwarae rôl myfyrwyr mewn grwpiau o bedwar, gwnaethom roi cynnig ar un o’r gweithgareddau roedd hi wedi’i ddefnyddio go iawn yn un o’i sesiynau.Yn fy marn i, dyma strategaeth weithdy diddorol a dadlennol, oherwydd ein bod ni’n canfod ein bod yn profi emosiynau tebyg i fyfyrwyr Patricia h.y. teimlo’n ddryslyd i gychwyn yna boddhad ac ymdeimlad o gyflawniad wrth i’r dasg fynd rhagddi.  Gofynnwyd i ni nodi’r emosiynau hyn ar ddarnau o bapur – defnyddiol iawn i gyfeirio atynt wrth reoli risgiau.

Cynhaliwyd y sesiwn ‘7C’ yn ystafell A019, Adeilad Canolog Peirianneg, sef un o fannau dysgu gweithredol pwrpasol newydd Prifysgol Abertawe, ond, esboniodd Patricia ei bod hi wedi cyflwyno ei dulliau gweithredol mewn ystafelloedd addysgu cyffredinol a oedd yn ddigon mawr ar gyfer ei myfyrwyr, heb unrhyw offer neu feddalwedd arbenigol.

A oedd hi’n werth y newid?

Gofynnodd Patricia am adborth gan ei myfyrwyr, ac i gychwyn roedd rhai’n gwrthwynebu – roeddent yn amlwg yn teimlo eu bod yn cael eu herio ac yn gwneud rhywbeth a oedd yn wahanol i’r arfer. Fodd bynnag, canfu Patricia fod yr adborth a’r sicrwydd roedd hi’n eu cynnig yn gyfnewid, ar y cyd â manteision y dull yn dweud cyfrolau am ddysgu myfyrwyr. Yn fuan daeth yr adborth yn gadarnhaol iawn, ac roeddent yn dyfynnu’r hwyl, y lefel uchel o ymgysylltiad a’r rhyngweithio rhwng staff a myfyrwyr ymysg y pethau yr oeddent yn eu hoffi orau.Dechreuodd yr adborth gynnwys y sylw ‘diolch yn fawr.’

A oedd anawsterau?

Oedd. Nododd Patricia lawer, a ddylai fod yn amlwg yn nogfennau rheoli risgiau unrhyw un sy’n ystyried mabwysiadau dull tebyg.

  • Rheoli lefelau gorbryder
  • Hwyluso grwpiau mwy
  • Lliniaru anawsterau o ran iaith

Gellid mynd i’r afael â phob un o’r rhain yn yr wybodaeth cyn-sesiynol a roddir i baratoi myfyrwyr e.e. rhestrau termau, rheoli disgwyliadau, esboniad eglur o fanteision dysgu gweithredol.

Ar ddiwedd y sesiwn, gadawais yn meddwl bod dull newydd Patricia yn adleisio sawl un o’r ‘Saith Egwyddor Arfer Da mewn Addysg Israddedig,’ ac roedd yn ysbrydoledig ac o gymorth yn ymarferol i gydweithwyr sy’n ystyried gwneud eu newidiadau i’w dysgu ac addysgu eu hunain.

Adnoddau Ychwanegol


Chickering, A., & Gamson, Z. (1987). “Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education” (PDF). AAHE Bulletin. 3.

Research findings on the seven principles. Yn A.W. Chickering & Z.F. Gamson (Eds.) Applying the seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education (pp. 13-25). New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 47. San Ffrancisco: Jossey-Bass. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/tl.v1991:47/issuetoc

Power, Jess (2012) Promoting Employability Skills through Active Learning. Yn: The Second Employability, Enterprise, & Citizenship in Higher Education Conference, Dydd Mawrth 27 Mawrth 2012, Manceinion, DU.







[:en]Learning through Games – reflections on the SALT Conference 2017[:]


Image: CC0 Public domain courtesy of https://pixabay.com/en/cube-colorful-transparent-mirroring-769344/

The SALT Conference 2017 was yesterday and we’re still on a high after the excellent range of posters, presentation and workshops.  We’re encouraging you whether you participated, presented or Chaired a session to reflect on the sessions you were at and identify how your practice might be changed?  What new learning did you gain? What will you do differently in the coming year?  What one thing will you have a go at? Will you tell us how you did, so we can build up our Case studies?

Here’s Louise Rees’ reflection (using the simple Add New>Reflection template in Pebblepad) on attending the two sessions by Helen Hodges (@hodges_hr, Abstract on using Kipling) and Pete King (@SU_MACS_MADATP, Playfulness Abstract) outlining how the learning environment has been adjusted to be more active and student engaging by involving ‘games’ and ‘playfulness’ .[:]

[:en]Reflections on the Digital Classroom Roadshow[:cy]Sylwadau am Sioe Deithiol yr Ystafell Ddosbarth Ddigidol[:]


Last week I attended the Digital Classroom Roadshow that was held at the University of South Wales. The roadshow was born from Duncan Peberdy‘s Active Learning Spaces and Technology: Advances in Higher and Further Education book. The roadshow has been touring UK institutions for the last 18 months to highlight the proven benefits that active learning has on student learning and attainment.

Active learning and flexible spaces is not new to me but I was interested to see what is happening across the sector and find out what challenges have had to be overcome to implement such spaces, as well as what technology would be used for the room, how easy it is to use and is it device and operating system agnostic.

Duncan started off with an introduction to the SCALE-UP project, this project started in North Carolina State University physics department as an initiative to change the mode of teaching as they were finding their traditional method was not working and they had a high drop out rate. The project changed the learning mode and environment to a highly collaborative, hands-on, computer rich interactive learning environment for large cohorts. The impact of this change in mode is summarised below:
– Ability to solve problems is improved
– Conceptual understanding is increased
– Attitudes are improved
– Failure rates are drastically reduced, especially for women and minorities
– “At risk” students do better in later engineering statics classes

The basic premise of this approach: get students working together to examine something interesting, and free the teacher to roam about the room asking questions, challenging students and stirring up debates, was showcased during the roadshow and also how technology can aid this way of working.

The technology solution used during the roadshow was that produced by Kramer, each table had a Kramer Pro box and the lectern PC had a Kramer campus box. What these allow is for students to connect their own device, Android, iOS, Windows, Mac etc. to the monitor on their table and collaborate on documents or present documents, video, images from their own device to the rest of the group. The teacher has a simple to use Application that has control of all of the monitors in the room and can override the monitors with their own presentation, or share one of the groups displays with the rest of the groups monitors.

Over the last 12 months here in SALT we have been looking at a range of other/alternative solutions that promise to do this type of collaborative sharing, but until now all have fallen short of the mark, either due to complexity of connecting devices or that they are limited to only one or two operating systems. The Kramer quite easily let all of the devices listed to connect and share content. There were restrictions on iOS devices, and it was highlighted that the solution works best with laptop devices rather than tablet/phones but all the same this is the first solution that allowed multiple devices to easily connect and share content/screen.

Also at the roadshow was Nicholas Burwell, Director of Burwell Deakins Architects, who was behind the design of the Loughborough University collaborative lecture theatre (amongst others). He gave an interesting discussion covering the modern thinking behind university lecture theatre design. I found his presentation fascinating giving some interesting views as to the way students are changing and how we should be adapting to accommodate these changes both in pedagogy and the design of our teaching spaces. You can view his presentation at an earlier roadshow  in 2016 below ( would highly recommend taking the time to do so)

Duncan continued on this theme and showed further examples of innovative, flexible, active learning spaces across UK institutions he has worked or visited.

Two points were also mentioned during the roadshow the first was of cost. The Roadshow setup cost in the region of £50,000, which sounds expensive, but Duncan put it in the context of the SCALE-UP project; by implementing that type of learning space it had improved student retention. So in turn if by implementing a similar space in the UK improves the retention of 2 students (on average spend £9,000 per year on fees), the cost of the room is covered. As well as paying for itself active learning has been shown to improve student attainment so those students that do use the room will also benefit in their knowledge and understanding.
Secondly Nicholas mentioned that the Loughborough collaborative lecture theatre was designed and built for Design school, but it has been so popular that it has now moved into the central timetable system for any department to use, and its utilisation is far greater than traditional lecture theatres as it is being used both for didactic and active teaching both to large and small cohorts. It was also noted that these spaces digital classrooms, collaborative lecture theatres, and flexible spaces were being used by students outside of timetabled learning and again space utilisation of the such spaces are higher than traditional learning spaces.

At Swansea we have aspirational goals of increasing our student numbers significantly over the next 5-10 years, this increase I believe will lead to an even wider diversification of our students and this will have an impact not only on where we teach them but how they are taught. Combined with the fact that employers are looking at both soft skills as well as depth of knowledge as displayed in the T-shaped graduate (Nicholas Burwell mentions this in his presentation above) I believe we need to be considering collaborative lecture theatres for new buildings and the refurbishment of existing rooms. To help staff become familiar with this change in space and pedagogy investment in a learning lab which contains a similar type set up to that of the digital classroom so our staff can experience the space and way of learning that this type of room and technology can provide would be of great benefit. These changes to learning spaces will come at a price and it will require a change in the way some staff approach teaching but if we aspire to be a top 20 University they at least need to be explored further.[:cy]

Yr wythnos ddiwethaf, cymerais ran yn Sioe Deithiol yr Ystafell Ddosbarth Ddigidol a gynhaliwyd ym Mhrifysgol De Cymru. Ysbrydolwyd y sioe deithiol gan lyfr Duncan Peberdy: Active Learning Spaces and Technology: Advances in Higher and Further Education. Mae’r sioe deithiol wedi bod yn ymweld â sefydliadau yn y DU am y 18 mis diwethaf er mwyn amlygu’r buddion profedig mae dysgu gweithredol yn eu cynnig i ddysgu a chyrhaeddiad myfyrwyr.

Nid yw dysgu gweithredol a mannu hyblyg yn rhywbeth newydd i mi, ond roedd gen i ddiddordeb i weld beth sy’n digwydd ar draws y sector a dysgu pa heriau y bu’n rhaid eu goresgyn i gyflwyno mannau o’r fath, yn ogystal â pha dechnoleg byddai’n cael ei defnyddio ar gyfer yr ystafell, pa mor hawdd yw ei defnyddio ac a yw’n addas ar gyfer unrhyw ddyfais a system weithredu.

Dechreuodd Duncan drwy gyflwyno’r prosiect SCALE-UP. Dechreuodd y prosiect hwn yn Adran Ffiseg Prifysgol Talaith North Carolina fel menter i newid y dull addysgu, oherwydd nad oedd eu dull traddodiadol yn gweithio ac am fod nifer uchel o fyfyrwyr yn gadael cyn gorffen eu cyrsiau. Newidiodd y prosiect y dull a’r amgylchedd dysgu a’i droi’n amgylchedd dysgu cydweithredol a rhyngweithiol iawn a oedd yn gwneud defnydd helaeth o gyfrifiaduron ac yn addas ar gyfer carfannau mawr. Crynhoir effaith y newid hwn isod:
Mae’r gallu i ddatrys problemau’n well
Mae dealltwriaeth gysyniadol wedi cynyddu
Mae agweddau’n well
Mae cyfraddau methu wedi gostwng yn sylweddol, yn enwedig ymhlith menywod a lleiafrifoedd
Mae myfyrwyr mewn perygl yn gwneud yn well mewn dosbarthiadau stateg peirianneg diweddarach

Cafodd egwyddor sylfaenol yr ymagwedd hon – annog myfyrwyr i gydweithio i archwilio rhywbeth diddorol, a rhyddhau’r athro i grwydro’r ystafell yn gofyn cwestiynau, yn herio myfyrwyr ac yn pryfocio dadleuon – ei harddangos yn ystod y sioe deithiol a hefyd, sut gall technoleg gynorthwyo’r ffordd hon o weithio.

Cynhyrchir y dechnoleg a ddefnyddiwyd yn y sioe deithiol gan Kramer. Roedd gan bob bwrdd Kramer Pro Box ac roedd Kramer Campus Box ar y cyfrifiadur ar y ddarllenfa. Mae’r rhain yn caniatáu i fyfyrwyr gysylltu eu dyfeisiau eu hunain – Android, iOS, Windows, Mac etc – â’r monitor ar eu bwrdd, a gallant gydweithio ar ddogfennau neu gyflwyno dogfennau, fideo, lluniau o’u dyfeisiau eu hunain i weddill y grŵp. Mae gan yr athro gymhwysiad sy’n hawdd ei ddefnyddio. Mae’n gallu rheoli pob monitor yn yr ystafell a gosod ei gyflwyniad eu hun ar y monitorau, neu rannu cynnwys un o’r grwpiau â monitorau’r grwpiau eraill.

Dros y 12 mis diwethaf yma yn Academi Dysgu ac Addysgu Abertawe, rydym wedi bod yn archwilio amrywiaeth o opsiynau eraill/amgen sy’n addo’r math hwn o rannu cydweithredol, ond sydd heb fynd â’r maen i’r wal hyd yn hyn, naill ai oherwydd cymhlethdod cysylltu dyfeisiau neu am eu bod yn gweithio gydag un neu ddwy system weithredu yn unig. Gyda thechnoleg Kramer, roedd yn hawdd cysylltu pob un o’r dyfeisiau a rhannu cynnwys. Roedd cyfyngiadau gyda dyfeisiau iOS ac amlygwyd bod y dechnoleg yn gweithio orau gyda gliniaduron yn hytrach na llechi/ffonau. Er gwaethaf hyn, dyma’r dechnoleg gyntaf sy’n caniatáu cysylltu nifer o ddyfeisiau a rhannu cynnwys/sgriniau’n hawdd.

Yn bresennol yn y sioe deithiol hefyd roedd Nicholas Burwell, Cyfarwyddwr y cwmni penseiri, Burwell Deakins, a oedd yn gyfrifol am ddylunio darlithfa gydweithredol Prifysgol Loughborough (ymysg eraill). Rhoddodd gyflwyniad diddorol ynghylch yr ymagwedd fodern sydd y tu ôl i ddylunio darlithfeydd prifysgolion. Roedd ei gyflwyniad yn afaelgar iawn ac yn cynnwys rhai syniadau diddorol am sut mae myfyrwyr yn newid a sut dylem ymateb i’r newidiadau hyn drwy addasu ein haddysgeg a chynllun ein mannau addysgu. Gallwch weld ei gyflwyniad mewn sioe deithiol gynharach (2016) isod. Byddwn yn eich argymell yn fawr i wneud hyn.


Parhaodd Duncan i siarad am y thema hon, a dangosodd enghreifftiau eraill o fannau dysgu arloesol, hyblyg a gweithredol mewn sefydliadau ledled y DU y mae wedi gweithio ynddynt neu ymweld â nhw.

Crybwyllwyd dau bwynt hefyd yn ystod y sioe deithiol, a chost oedd yr un cyntaf. Cost creu’r sioe deithiol oedd tua £50,000, sy’n swnio’n ddrud, ond gwnaeth Duncan ei osod yng nghyd-destun prosiect SCALE-UP; drwy gyflwyno’r math hwnnw o fan dysgu, llwyddwyd i wella cyfraddau cadw myfyrwyr. Felly, pe bai modd sicrhau bod 2 fyfyriwr yn parhau ar eu cyrsiau drwy gyflwyno man dysgu tebyg yn y DU (gwariant blynyddol cyfartalog ar ffioedd o £9,000), byddai hynny’n talu am gost yr ystafell. Yn ogystal â thalu am ei hun, dangoswyd bod dysgu gweithredol yn gwella cyrhaeddiad myfyrwyr felly, bydd gwybodaeth a dealltwriaeth y myfyrwyr hynny sy’n defnyddio’r ystafell yn elwa hefyd.
Yn ail, dywedodd Nicholas fod darlithfa gydweithredol Loughborough wedi cael ei dylunio a’i hadeiladu ar gyfer yr Ysgol Ddylunio, ond oherwydd ei phoblogrwydd, ei bod wedi cael ei symud i’r system amserlennu ganolog i unrhyw adran ei defnyddio. Mae’n cael ei defnyddio i raddau llawer mwy helaeth na darlithfeydd traddodiadol am ei bod yn addas at ddiben addysgu gweithredol a didactig hefyd, i garfannau mawr a bach fel ei gilydd. Nodwyd hefyd bod yr ystafelloedd dosbarth digidol, y darlithfeydd cydweithredol a’r mannau hyblyg hyn yn cael eu defnyddio gan fyfyrwyr y tu allan i’r amserlen ac unwaith eto bod y lleoedd hyn yn cael eu defnyddio llawer mwy na mannau dysgu traddodiadol.

Yn Abertawe mae gennym nodau uchelgeisiol o ran cynyddu nifer ein myfyrwyr yn sylweddol yn ystod y degawd nesaf.  Credaf y bydd y cynnydd hwn yn arwain at amrywiaeth ehangach byth ymhlith ein myfyrwyr ac y bydd hyn yn effeithio, nid yn unig ar ble rydym yn eu haddysgu ond sut cânt eu haddysgu hefyd. Ar y cyd â’r ffaith bod cyflogwyr yn chwilio am sgiliau meddal, yn ogystal â gwybodaeth fanwl (fel y’i harddangosir gan y syniad o ‘raddedigion siâp T‘ y cyfeirir ato gan Nicholas Burwell yn ei gyflwyniad uchod), credaf fod angen i ni ystyried darlithfeydd cydweithredol ar gyfer adeiladau newydd ac wrth ailwampio’r ystafelloedd sydd gennym. I helpu staff i ymgyfarwyddo â’r newid hwn mewn lleoedd ac addysgeg, a’u galluogi i gael profiad o’r lleoedd a’r dulliau dysgu y gall y math hwn o ystafell a thechnoleg eu darparu, byddai o fudd mawr buddsoddi mewn labordy dysgu â chynllun tebyg i un yr ystafell ddosbarth ddigidol. Bydd cost yn gysylltiedig â’r newidiadau hyn mewn mannau dysgu, a bydd angen i rai aelodau staff newid eu hymagwedd at addysgu ond, os oes gobaith gennym ymuno â rhengoedd yr 20 o brifysgolion gorau, mae angen eu harchwilio o leiaf.[:]